Nemo, the adorable clown in the movie Finding Nemo, is shaking all over his anemic in which he lives to protect him from being stabbed and eating it as if it were the most fish. This friction leads, according to a new study, to changing the makeup of microbes covering clownfish.
Bacterial equines together with the anemones can help clownfish nest in poisonous chaffes of anemones, a strange symbiosis that scientists – including now a team from the Institute of Technology in Georgia – have been trying to solve for decades. Researchers from the sea areas studied microbes on clowns that mingled and mingled with anemones killing fish.
"It's a symbolic relationship between the host and the partner, and we knew microbes were on every surface of every animal," said Frank Stewart, a professor at the School of Biological Sciences at Georgia Tech. "In this particular intercourse, these surfaces are covered by things that microbes are luring to eat: mucus."
Clownfish and the anemones exchange a lot of mucus when they are wasting. So the scientists brought the clown and anemones together and analyzed microbes in mucus covering the fish when anemones were hosted and when they were not.
"Their microbiology has changed," said Zoe Pratte, a postdoctoral researcher at Stewart's Laboratory and the first author of a new study. "The two bacteria we observed separately developed in contact with the anemones."
"In addition, there have been major changes," said Stewart, chief research officer of the study. "If you looked at the total number of micro-organisms, they looked completely different on the clownfish that was hosted by the anamnesis and the one that was not."
Researchers chased 12 clowns in six fish tanks for eight weeks to clear mucus and identify microbes by gene sequences. They published the results in the magazine Coral reefs. The research was funded by the Simons Foundation.
Questions and Answers
Here are some experimental questions and answers that have created some fun anecdotes along with fascinating facts about anemones and clowns. For example: Fish peeing on anemones makes the latter stronger. Clownfish changes the sex. And it was particularly difficult to catch one fish that researchers called "Houdini".
Will solve this mystery about this strange symbiosis?
No, but it's a new approach to clownfish-anemone.
"It is the first step that asks the question:" Is there a part of the microbial relationship that changes? "Stewart said, and the study gave a response to clownfish, which was" yes ".
The older hypothesis of the voice stated that the clownfish mucus was too dense to sweat. Current ideas indicate that muzzle replacement also covers clownfish with anemone antigens, ie with its own immune proteins, or that fish and fish hunters can exchange chemical reports.
"An anemone can recognize a clownfish chemical that keeps it from banging," Stewart said. "And that could include a microbe. Microbes are great pharmacies."
In the future, researchers want to analyze the mucus chemistry. They also do not yet know to what extent microbes change on fish due to bacteria that fish gleans from the anemone. It is possible that the microbial fish of the slime tuber develop as a result of contact differently on the fish.
What do fish anemones usually do?
Kill them and eat them.
"The Sesanec evolved to kill the fish, shooting a small poisonous arrow in the skin of the fish to kill him, and then he pulled it into his mouth," Stewart said. "Clown fish will get away.
By the way, tentacles are not harmful to humans.
"If you touch the anemone, it sounds like they swing their finger," Pratte said. "Their small harpoons feel as if they are holding on to you. It will not hurt."
What are the anemones and clowns from this relationship?
For starters, they protect each other from potential prey. But there are plenty more. Some clownfish even change the gender by living in an anemone.
"When they start to be hosted, fish make a big development switch," Stewart said. "The first fish in a group that has settled in an anemone in the wild goes from man to woman, grows much larger and becomes a dominant member of the group."
She is the only woman in the school of men.
Anemones seem to grow bigger and healthier, partly because the clown is urinating on them.
"When the fish get angry, the algae in the anemones take up nitrogen, then they eliminate the sugars that feed the anemone and increase it," Pratte said. "Sometimes fish hide their food and fall into the anemone that is her."
Any funny anecdotes from this experiment?
Lots of: scientifically unambiguous, but endeavored to do, partly because scientists carefully cared for fish at the same time.
"You have to get fish and anemones to bind and fish can also be hosted in other places like the mountains in the rock," said Pratte.
"Clownfish is smarter than other fish, so it's harder to catch them, especially if we want to minimize stress on animals," says Alicia Caughman, senior research assistant in the Fast Track to Research School of Biological Sciences. "We named one fish" Houdini. "He could shudder between the nets and the narrow spaces and mostly overcame anyone who tried to catch him."
"We also had bubbles that exploded a lot of bubbles," Biggie "and" Smalls "," Broad "," Sheila "," Earl "and" Flounder, "said Pratte. distinguish.
The anemic aspect of a microbial question may be more difficult to answer, because for all Houdini piles, the anemones, which are frightening invertebrates, are even more endeavoring. They can squeeze into uncomfortable niches or attach aquarium sewers and they also have lively microbioms.