According to a new study by Cornell University in collaboration with California University, Davis suggests that combinations of marine warming and infectious disease stress crushed the populations of huge sunflower sea stars as they are on the west coast of North America.
Since 2013, a marine star destruction hospital has had a huge mortality rate in many oceanic starfish from Mexico to Alaska. The East Coast was not immune because the disease affected the banks of New Jersey to New England.
Drew Harvell, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, Cornell, co-author, said, "Once abundantly in the nearshore waters, starfish sunflowers can not be found off California coast and are rare in Alaska. endangered in the southern part of their range and for northern Alaska we do not have data. "
"Global warming due to the changing atmosphere is probably a major factor, with humidity in the oceans – the production of rising temperatures in the atmosphere – aggravating the disease caused by the wasting of sea stars, a deadly disease, and when you add a higher temperature, it kills it faster.
"Fishing depends on the nearshore kelp forest and creates a healthy environment for fish and the wider ocean ecosystem." "Seaweed Sea Seeds have been extinct in some areas," he said, adding to seaweed, which significantly reduced algae.
Diego Montecino-Latorre, a wilder epidemiologist with UC Davis One Health Institute and co-founder, said: "The sunflower sea star continues to fall even in the deepest ocean and does not get the same way as the Intertidal Ostros star."
"This is likely because this disease has many hosts, and other species that better tolerate the pathogen can spread to a sunflower star."
Joseph Gaydos, principal author of the book and director of UC Davis & SeaDoc Society, said: "In California, Washington, and parts of British Columbia, Sunflower Stars keep the trees under control, without sunflowers breeding and endangering algae and biodiversity. the cascade effect really has a big impact. "
Between 2006 and 2017, scientists and trained native scientists with the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) led 10,956 meandering jumps from Southern California to Alaska. Before 2013, jumpers revealed the wealth of sea stars, but between 2013 and 2017 the population collapsed.
Researchers from Simon Fraser University and the Hakai Institute have confirmed the misfortune of the remote island of Calvert in British Columbia. The ocean heating recorded at the REEF site concerns the expansion of the water temperature by up to 4 degrees Celsius, which began in 2014.
NOAA scientists have evaluated sunflower sea stars in a vast number of deep trawls from Mexico to the Canadian border, and have seen a 100% drop in all the countries in deep water up to 1000 meters.
For this research, "sick epidemics and wave waves are associated with the collapse of the continental predator (Pycnopodia Helianthoides)", other partner institutions were Simon Fraser University, Stanford University, Hakaiinstitut and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
The study is published in the journal Science Advances.