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Moderate traumatic brain injury associated with a higher risk of PTSD, depression

Specifically, the research associates mild traumatic brain injury with a higher risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and post-injury depression compared to other types of traumatic injuries that do not include the head.

A study, published on Wednesday in JAMA Psychiatry, found that between 21.2% of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries among hospital patients, PTSD or depression was reported for up to six months after injury, compared to 12.1% of patients without head injury .
Traumatic brain injury may range from "mild" to "severe", and is usually caused by a stroke, blow or headache, or penetrating head injury that interferes with normal brain function, according to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A new study included 1,155 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries and 230 head injury from 11 hospitals with traumatic centers across the United States between 2014 and 2016.

Moderate traumatic brain disorders were 61.8% due to motor vehicle collisions, 29.2% due to fall or other unintentional injury, 6.1% due to violence or attack, and 3% of undetermined cause.

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The health of each patient was evaluated shortly after being seen in the hospital two weeks later and three months, six months and twelve months after the accident. At these points, patients were examined for post-traumatic stress disorder and symptoms of severe depressive disorder.

Researchers have found that patients with mild traumatic brain injury are likely to report PTSD or severe depressive symptoms at three and six months after the injury. At three months, for example, the prevalence of either moderate depressive disorder or PTSD was 20% in those with mild traumatic brain injuries compared with 8.7% in those who did not have head injuries.

Researchers also found that a mental illness problem before traumatic brain injury is an "exceptionally strong risk factor" that after PTSD or severe depressive disorder subsequently.

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The study had some limitations, including that more research is needed before the findings can be generalized to other hospitals, communities or countries. Researchers also relied on their own reports of patients' history of mental health problems.

Scientists also found an increased risk of PTSD and depression after mild traumatic brain injury in black patients. More research is needed to analyze this inequality.

Overall, "our findings may have implications for the monitoring and treatment of mental disorders after TBI." The incidence and long-term course of PTSD after TBI is variable, "researchers wrote.

Their findings show that PTSD and severe depressive disorder, although common, occur only in a minority of patients after mild traumatic brain injury, "but especially those with mental illness," they wrote.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Defense. Researchers also included a long list of conflicts of interest information, including some pharmaceutical companies and the NFL.
Dr. John Leddy, a physician for sports medicine in primary care and a clinical professor at the University of Buffalo, New York, called a new "well-done" study, but noted that findings could not be generalized to sports distress.

"Moderate traumatic brain injury is a category of bran injuries that involve brain rashes, with mild poisoning at the weakest end of the spectrum, for example, sports shake may be a subset of mild traumatic brain injury," said Leddy, who was not involved in the study but worked as a medical director of the University of Buffalo Concussion Management Clinic.

"All of the patients in this study received a CT scan to evaluate brain bleeding or fracture of the skull, and perhaps a neurological deficiency when they were on alert. While this type of injury can be classified as" mild ", it is far more serious than sports shakes that would could be typical, "he said.

"Overall, I think it's a good study that helps to predict who is at risk of depression and PTSD after a traumatic injury to a brain suffered in a car accident or an attack," but the results can not be generalized by athletes with a sporting shock. "

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