Dental problems are a chronic disease, the most common and frequent in the population, an important public health problem due to its high impact, especially in the low socioeconomic stratum, as well as the high cost of treatment,

Vidal Alejandro Pomés, a dental surgeon and professor at Finis Terra's Stomatological Faculty, describes in detail problems with the dental problems that Chilean people often pose.

1. Kazy: It is a multifactorial chronic disease of microbial origin, which is characterized by the destruction of hard tissue of the tooth. It starts with the demineralisation of tooth enamel, the most tooth-to-tooth layer, caused by acids that form a set of organized bacteria called bacterial plaques. They use the remains of food for our "civilized" diet, which is usually rich in carbohydrates contained in confectionery, biscuits and beverages, among others.

"After this initial attack and the superficial chemical type of bacteria, they continue to attack the structures of the tooth, causing the destruction of dentin, a tissue that is deeply embedded in enamel," explains Dr. After me.

According to statistics from the Ministry of Health (Minsal), cavities begin from the first years of life and show a significant increase with age. In 2 years, cartilage prevalence was 17.5%, 49.6% for 4 years, and 70.4% for 6 years with mixed teeth, that is temporary and final teeth. At age 12, it is 62.5%, and in the 65-74 age group it rises to 99.4%.

2. Gingival and periodontal disease: Dr. Pomés points out that another of the dental problems that most Chileans are consulted is gingivitis, which is gum inflammation caused mainly by the same bacterial plaque described above.

According to the academic Finis Terrae, if this inflammation is not controlled, the process with a periodontal disease that has the same bacterial origin continues.

"Gingivitis is a loss of dental insertion, that is, a loss of tissues that holds the tooth inside the maxillary bones, which also leads to the loss of these teeth without treatment," says the professor at the Finis Terrae Department of Dentistry.

3. Dentomaxial anomalies: These are anatomical and / or functional changes that affect the dentomaxial and / or skeletal harmonic relationship of the oral cavity. According to Dr. There are several related factors, including the genetic component, insufficient growth of one or both of the jaws, teeth count and size anomalies, premature tooth loss, interproximal decay, poor suction and oral breathing habits, among others.

4. Oral cancer: This is a disease characterized as a chronic and complex process. "The main risk factors include tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and excessive exposure to sun," warns Dr.Vidal Pomés.

Cases of oral cancer and pharynx, according to data from Minsal, represent 1.5% of the total cancers in men and 0.7% in women.

The professor at Finis Terrae's dental faculty stresses that it is crucial to look for strategies that promote the inclusion of healthy oral hygiene and food pediatric habits. "The transfer of oral health knowledge from the dentist to the pedagogical team is key, and patients should also regularly visit a dentist," he said.

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