Other factors, such as computer games and the mother's level of education, are likely to affect this disease, which is estimated to affect 4,758 million people worldwide by 2050. This was implied by this study applied to twins.
Myopia was explained by consensus through hereditary factors.
He was born in the summer, and hours dedicated to computer games are associated with an increased risk of developing short or near-misshapencies in childhood, according to twin studies published in the digital edition of "British Journal of Ophthalmology"However, fertility treatment may be protective, suggesting this. (Read: Colombian's most common eye disease)
Myopia is defined as a refractive error, which means that the eye can not properly focus the light, causing close objects to be clear, but the distant objects appear blurry. It is a disease that is becoming more and more common: there are likely to be 4,558 million people worldwide in the year 2050, compared to 1,950 million people in 2010.
It can be repaired by glasses, laser surgery or contact lenses, but the condition is associated with increased risk of eye damage and loss of vision in later life.
It is believed that genes play a role in the disorder but can not fully explain the increasing prevalence. Due to rapid eye development in early life, researchers wanted to explore the potential benefits of the environment throughout their lives.
These specialists studied 1991 twins, whose age was on average 16.7 years. The twins were all born between 1994 and 1996 in the United Kingdom and participated in the "Study of early development of long-term twins " (TEDS, its abbreviation in English).
Eye optics provided information on eye examinations for myopia, and researchers analyzed demographic, social, economic, educational and behavioral factors in twins when these children had 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age to capture critical stages of child and eye development.
Parents and teachers completed exhaustive questionnaires and twins carried out web evaluations to provide a wide range of potentially relevant information and basics about factors that could influence the development of early life.
The average age when children with myopia began to wear glasses to correct this illness was 11 years. Approximately one in 20 (5.4%) had a "lazy eye" (amblyopia) and a similar proportion (almost 4.5%) had strabismus. Overall, one in four (26 percent) twin twins.
Factors most associated with the development of myopia at different time points were the mother's educational achievement (university or postgraduate level), hours dedicated to computer games and birth in the summer. Hours spent playing computer games need not only be related to close work but also to less time out, a factor previously associated with an increased risk of myopia.
Education has also been associated with short-sightedness, and as a UK-born baby born during the summer months, she starts going to school at a younger age than those who were born in the winter months, scientists suggest that this close work may speed up eye growth, which is responsible for myopia .
Less short-sightedness in children born after fertility treatment
Higher levels of household incomes and intelligence measures, especially word scores, were associated with a higher risk, but to a lesser extent. Fertility treatment appears to offer protection against myopia and was associated with a 25-30% lower risk.
Scientists, group members Department of Academic Ophthalmology "King's College London", in London, UK, speculate that children born as a result of fertility treatment are often born smaller and a little premature and may have some degree of developmental delay, which could explain shorter eye lengths and less myopia.
But this is an observational study and as such can not prove the cause, scientists say, and notes that future research may be able to analyze interactions between genetic sensitivity and environmental influences.