There are those who can eat without getting rid of something and glad that others live as pleasure and that the body does not show it while others are heavily appreciated. A study by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom has shown that genetic weight plays a more important role than it will be in terms of weight.
Overweight and obesity are not an aesthetic problem but health because they increase the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer, among other complications.
Although it is known that changes in our environment, such as easy access to food rich in calories and sedentary lifestyles, have led to an increase in obesity in recent years. significant individual variations weight within a population that shares the same environment. Some people seem to be able to eat what they like and stay thin, which often causes overweight people to be labeled as lazy or unwilling.
With support from Wellcome and the European Research Council, a team led by Professor Sadaf Farooqi at the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science at Cambridge University has dealt with a "Slim and Slender Singles Study" (STILTS from its English abbreviation) to explore why and as some people find it easier to stay lean than others.
Studies of twins have shown that changes in body weight are greatly influenced by our genes. So far, studies have mostly focused on overweight people. Of these, hundreds of genes have been found that increase the likelihood that a person is overweight, and in some, faulty genes can cause severe childhood obesity.
The team of Professor Farooqi received 2,000 thin people (defined as Body Mass Index – IMC – less than 18 kg / m2), but healthy, without health problems and eating disorders. They worked with general practices across the UK, sampled DNA samples and asked participants to answer questions about their overall health and lifestyle. It is believed is the only cohort of its kind in the world and scientists emphasize that the National Institute for Health Research in the United Kingdom, the National Health Service's research infrastructure, has enabled and greatly supported its research.
In a study published in the journal PLOS Genetics, the team of Professor Farooqi collaborated with the Dr. team Inêsa Barrosa at the Wellcome Sanger Institute compare the DNA of about 14,000 people: 1,622 volunteers from the STILTS group; 1985 people with severe obesity and 10,433 more controls of normal weight.
Our DNA consists of a sequence of molecules known as base pairs, represented by the letters A, C, G and T. The chains of these base pairs form genetic regions (which comprise or form our genes). Genes provide code for how our body works, and spelling changes, such as C instead of A, can have Minor or sometimes dramatic changes in characteristics such as hair color and eye color, but also person's weight.
Genetic risk score
The team has found several common genetic variants that have already been identified by the role they play in obesity. They also found new genetic areas involved in severe obesity and some in healthy weaknessTo find out how these genes affect the weight of the individual, scientists have added contributions of different variants to calculate the genetic risk score.
"We found obese people had Higher genetic risk scores than those with normal weight, which adds to the risk of overweight. Genetic blocks are loaded against them"says Dr. Barroso.
Importantly, the team also showed that thinner people had much lower genetic risk scores; they presented less variations, which, as we know, increase the chances that a person is overweight.
"This research shows first Thin, healthy people are usually thin because they have a lower load of genes that increase the likelihood of the person being overweight not because they are morally superior, as some people suggest, says Professor Farooqi. It is easy to hurry to judge and criticize people for their weight, but science shows that things are much more complicated. We have far less control over our weights than we can think of. "
Three out of four people (74%) said in the STILTS cohort Family history of thin and healthy, and thus found some genetic changes that were much more common in thin people, telling them that they would allow them to identify new genes and biological mechanisms that help people stay slim.
"We already know that people can be thinner for various reasons," says Farooqi. "Some people are not interested in food while others can eat what they like, but they never have more weightIf we can find genes that prevent them from gaining weight, we will be able to address these genes to find new weight loss strategies and to help people who do not have this benefit. "