- Kim H Nguyenresearcher1,
- Stanton And GlantzProfessor2 3 4,
- Casey N Palmerresearch analyst1,
- Laura A SchmidtProfessor15 6 7
- 1Philip R Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94148, USA
2Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
3Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, San Francisco, California, USA
4Cardiovascular Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
5Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA
6Clinical and Translational Scientific Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
7Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
- Correspondence to: L A Schmidt
Sugar sugary drinks are a risk factor for obesity and cardiometabolic diseases.1234 Young children are particularly vulnerable to the convincing influence of sweet beverage ads, 567 and the World Health Organization has urged governments to tighten restrictions on the sale of food and beverages for child protection.8
The marketing of sweet drinks to multinational children and the need to regulate these beverages has been a public concern since the 1970s. 910111213 In 1974, the Better Business Bureau created a children's advertising department to promote "responsible" advertising of children through their own police work. In 2006, in response to calls for government regulation, industry created its initiative for advertising and advertising for children (CFBAI) .14 CFBAI members commit to "shift the mix of children-centered advertising (" child-centered advertising ") to support healthier dietary choices, "devote 100% of your child-targeted advertising to foods that are better for you, or not participate in such advertising," and "limit the use of licensed third-party characters, celebrities, and movie ties. ins. 15
Comparisons were made between tobacco and the soft drinks industry, 1617 including similarities in aggressive activities against tax and marketing restrictions, leading some to ask, "Is Sugar New Tobacco?" 1819 Tobacco Industry Documents Show that Many of Today's Tobacco Kids Leaders Once tobacco companies owned and developed (Table 1, see additional data for bmj.com for document sources and research methods).
R J Reynolds and Philip Morris, the two largest US conglomerates in the US, began to acquire brands of soft drinks in the 1960s and were instrumental in developing top brands for kids, including Hawaiian punch, Kool-Aid, Capri Sun, and Tang. Tobacco managers have transferred their marketing knowledge to young people and have expanded product lines with the colors, flavors and marketing strategies that were originally designed to sell cigarettes. These brands eventually sold these brands to globalized food and beverage companies, which, despite the promise of CFBAI, to which most of them have committed, continued in 2018 to implement some integrated tobacco marketing campaigns to reach very young children.
R J Reynolds and Hawaiian Strike
Until the 1960s, the sweet drink industry was dominated by Coca-Cola and Pepsi, which sold brands without priority to children through adults.21 During the 1960s, both companies began experimenting with new products: Coca-Cola launched Fanta, Tab, and Sprite while Pepsi Launched Teem, Mountain Dew and Diet Pepsi, but none of them was solely aimed at children.2223242526
In May 1962, Vice President RJ Reynolds Industries commissioned company laboratories to develop powder and effervescent tablet formulations of sweet beverages and conduct a market research on children (see Table A on bmj.com) .27 In the 1962 Memorandum to Research Director Reynolds' Biochemical Manager Research wrote: "It is easy to characterize RJ Reynolds only as a tobacco company. However, in a wider and much less restrictive sense, R J Reynolds is in the store with a taste. "2829 He noted that" many flavors for tobacco [would] be useful in foods, beverages and other products that produce "big financial returns". In 1963, Reynolds' idea of squeezing the effervescent powder on the stick became King of the Stir Stick, allowing children to make a sweet drink by mixing the water.30 that year, Reynolds increased production to one million bars per month.
In 1963, as part of his effort to diversify behind tobacco, Reynolds bought Pacific Hawaiian products that made Hawaiian Punch. 31 At that time the Pacific Hawaiian sold Hawaiian punch in two flavors as an at-home cocktail mixer for adults (Fig. 1). From 1966 to 1977, Reynolds conducted at least 34 market research studies with children and housewives, including taste tests to evaluate the sweetness, flavors, and colors for Hawaiian Punch product line extensions (Table B on bmj.com).
Children 's priorities were preferred. Apple appetite test found that housewives prefer amber while kids prefer red, resulting in a recommendation to "interrupt further Amber Apple development and … introduce Red Apple." 32 These tests led Reynolds to expand from two on two. at least 16 flavors and 24 products.32333435363738
The Hawaiian Punch Mascot, Punchy, first appeared in 1962, just before Reynolds bought the brand. Reynolds made Punchy a "focal point of overall marketing approach". 39 In 1963-79 Punchy was featured in television commercials, magazines, and Sunday comics, and on school book, toy, clothing, glasses, and wristwatches. 40414243RJR World an employee magazine, he noted that "[h]the presence on the display stands lends immediate eye attraction "and that Punchy was" the best seller ever had a drink. “40
The Hawaiian strike was originally available in 46 oz (1.36 L) canisters. In 1973, Reynolds introduced 8 ounce (230 ml) open cans as a "size with … ideal for children." They are easy to use, easy to open and drink. "40 In 1976, Reynolds introduced a four-flavored powder version that generated $ 50 million in the first year (£ 38 million; € 44 million) .4 The Reynolds press release stated that his strategy of introducing the same product in liquid and powder form was" one of the most successful in the food industry ”. By 1978 Reynolds had created five forms: liquid, frozen, shelf concentrate and pre-frozen and unsweetened powder powder.35 In 1983, Reynolds introduced its first national aseptic package ("juice box"), a disposable beverage sold as "practical little" the carton that comes with its own straw "with Go Hawaiian when you are at Reynolds Chief, Del Monte found:" Last year, Hawaiian Punch grew 34 percent last year, which was mostly aseptic packages benefits and affordability, especially among younger users. ”47
The 1985 report states that scientists at the Reynolds' "taste labs" lab create a beverage recipe that is based on our knowledge of the tastes we already produce or have in our taste library. We are looking for new and different combinations. Some work, others do not, but they all contribute to our knowledge bank… Beverages appeal to consumers through a comprehensive system of taste, smell and appearance. The ideal… is to leave people who want more. "48 The Reynolds analysis of 1985, Philip Morris, concluded:
Reynolds presence in almost all aisles of a grocery store[ted] cross merchandising brands in different parts of shop and different forms of packaging. For example, Hawaiian Punch, part of the original RJR Foods, with annual sales of over $ 200 million, is growing with sales through vending machines and more recently with aseptically packaged paper cartons. The food industry has historically been a manufacturing and distribution company – with companies that have kept their packaging / technology and distribution channels, whether preserved or frozen. In our opinion, successful companies in the future will develop brands with line extensions and goods in all the aisles of the store.49
Reynolds sold Hawaiian Punch to Procter & Gamble in 1990. The brand is currently owned by dr. Pepper Snapple, who continues to sell Punchy drinks.
Philip Morris at the Sweet Drinks Market
General Foods bought Kool-Aid in 1953 from Perkins Products, which sold it as a cheap alternative to family soda. 5051 In 1985, in an effort to diversify the food and beverage industry, 525354 acquired Philip Morris General Food, including Kool-Aid. A year later, Philip Morris managers said that marketing "was quite well balanced between appeal to mom and children." We decided to focus our marketing on children, where we know our strength is greatest. This year, Kool-Aid will be the most popular trademark for children in America. “5556 Philip Morris cut Kool-Aid media expenses to mothers in 1986-87 (from $ 20.1 million to $ 10.7 million) and doubled the budget for children's marketing (from $ 2.8m to $ 6m) ) .57
The following year, Philip Morris launched the $ 45 million "Kool-Aid Mad Wildlife Campaign" with a revamped Kool-Aid mascot – a giant anthropomorphic glass jug.58 The campaign was developed by Gray Advertising and focused on 6-12 year old children.59 Gray the executive remarked, "We found that if we had adults who would do these grotesque reactions, drop on banana husks, wigs would fall if we looked adults stupid because they saw Kool-Aid humans and were shocked and frightened – the children loved it because they were under control. "25 In 1993, Grey's executive creative director said," Kids want something their own, "and the Kool-Aid image was" unusual and wild and fun, and just for kids. " A drink that's just for kids. 25
Working with Mattel and Nintendo led to branded toys, including Barbie and Hot Wheels. 6061 The Wacky Warehouse loyalty program enabled children to buy Kool-Aid purchases for gifts and bets. Philip Morris, the head of the beverage division, described it as "our version of the Marlboro Country Store," the 1972 cigarette loyalty program.63 The 1992 Philip Morris analysis called Kool-Aid Wacky Warehouse "the most effective child marketing vehicle". 64
Between 1986 and 2004, Philip Morris developed at least 12 new liquid and frozen Kool-Aid products and 11 new flavors (Tables C and D). Philip Morris has added some 36 flavors tested to the Kool-Aid range, with names like Cherry Cracker and Kickin Kiwi Lime. Some integrated colors with cartoon characters, such as "Great Bluedini", sold under the wizard's mascot. CEO Philip Morris said, "Many adults can go," My God, "but children are really excited about it," in the market research, "kids just say blue is cool."
Magic Twists and Mad ScienTwists were the colors that changed when mixed with water, which Philip Morris, the director of the category, noted: "Kids love colors and" twisted "aromatic blends.
Philip Morris has organized "synergistic" meetings to coordinate direct marketing across cigarettes and other subsidiaries.67 Demographic data, including children's age and household purchasing patterns, have been compiled into an extensive consumer database used by all subsidiaries.68 Children received exclusive six comics Marvel Series, The Adventure of Man Kool-Aid, 53 and Philip Morris Quarterly Magazine What's hot, 69 present Kool-Aid paintings and gifts (eg Kool-Aid Samples, custom-made music tapes) .64What's hot had a circulation of two million in 1988.70
In 1993, Philip Morris sponsored cross-promotions and product tie-ins with toy manufacturers Mattel, Nintendo and others to achieve "top-notch children's promotion". Promotion with 2-11-year-old Nickelodeon's 727374 promoted "goggles" (3-D glasses) and "smok-o-vision", allowing children to engage in Kool-Aid cartoon scenes and internet.72757677 An integrated marketing campaign included simultaneous in-store displays, mail, package inserts and sponsorship (eg, Macy's Thanksgiving parade) in a "fully integrated action across all touch points in the children's world", as reported by Philip Morris. Marketing Services Director.747678 She looked at smell-o-vision "as a benchmark for raising the bar for future children's events" when it reached 95% of the target 6-12 years.
In 1991, Philip Morris subsidiary Kraft Foods licensed North American Capri Sun79 – a European fruit drink in a straw foil pouch that was launched in the United States since 1981. 8081828384 Philip Morris labeled it "all natural drinks for kids" in Cold Case, "says 6-14 years.62 Philip Morris has added bright colors and beach scenes to the covers to evoke" California cool ". 8085 In 1994 Philip Morris relocated Capri Sun as a lunch drink and added it to lunch. "Fun pack" of pre-packaged food.86 In 1994, footwear sales grew 34% and more than $ 500m by 1998
The 1995 Philip Morris campaign promoting Capri Sun featured surfers and skateboarders along with package bonuses such as football magazines, mountain bike stickers and store bets through collaboration with Trek and RollerBlade. bags carrying sports holographic images. 90 An article from 1995 in Philip Morris Globe the magazine has attributed the "growing success of the brand in the combination of unique packaging and images" because "it has a unique, top-notch image – very cool, sporty and outdoor active". 90 An 11 oz (325 ml) sachet, 67% larger, "Focused on Youth" started in 2000.91
General Foods developed Tang in 1957. The orange flavor beverage powder, containing sugar, artificial colors, and vitamin C, was sold to families for breakfast. Tang was popularized through its relationship with the US space program.92 In 1992, under the ownership of Philip Morris, Tang products were repacked from canister powder to foil bags to "broaden their appeal by giving up their image as" just "a drink on breakfast. 9394 Tang's media strategy focused on mothers through daytime television, but after a 14% drop in sales in 1995.95 Philip Morris executives reoriented the brand to children aged 9-14 (replenishment).
Tang was placed as a "kick in the glass" for tweens considered "too old for Kool-Aid, but too young for orange juice." 62 Promo reworked Tang as "Extreme Orange Drink for Today's Extreme Replenishment" in an Innovative Live Orangutan Campaign.62 Tang was restored in 1997 through media collaboration with DC Comics & # 39; MAD Magazine, Sports Illustrated Jrand in store supermarkets.96 Major League Soccer 9697 sports sponsorship and Schwinn bicycles helped "build credibility with minors and teenagers". the sales director said he intended to "reach out to the party in a cool and relevant way". 99
Philip Morris developed his sweet brand name until 2007 when he spun off Kool-Aid, Capri Sun and Tang under Kraft. Kool-Aid and Capri Sun remain with Kraft-Heinz in the US, but Tang is now licensed by Mondelēz worldwide and Kool-Aid by Coca-Cola in Europe. Kool-Aid and Capri Sun Still Use Products and Marketing Campaigns (Kool-Aid Jammers, Capri Sun Sports Capsule Foil Case) by Philip Morris.
In 2017, Mondelez continued to develop and sell new "fun" flavors in individual packets.102 Mondelez International website advertises the launch of the new Tang flavor, which is sold with a practical sipper bottle, so that "every child can quench this summer. 103
Both Reynolds and Philip Morris used cartoons of mascots, baby-size technology, and promotional messages that attract children's desire for autonomy, play, and novelty. Product lines included toy-like swizzle sticks, effervescent tablets, fun bottles, and beverages that changed color. New flavors with names such as Purplesaurus Rex and Blastin Berry Cherry have been formulated with numerous product tests on children. Marketing campaigns used cartoon characters that appealed to children's aspirations, an approach also used to create loyalty to cigarettes104 – for example, Reynolds' use of Joe Camel to recruit young people to smoke.105 Tobacco companies also promoted their drinks through integrated marketing strategies that were originally designed to sell cigarettes, surrounded by children with consistent product, home, store, school, sports stadium, and amusement park reports.74
US lawsuit led to the end of Joe Camel106, and legislation in 2009 banned the use of cartoon characters to support cigarettes.107 The 2003 World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control obliges parties to ban or severely restrict marketing and introduce strong health warnings Tobacco Products.108 In 2016, Chile became the world leader with federal law introducing similar warning labels and strict marketing restrictions for junk food and child-oriented beverages.109110 The law states that food and beverages cannot be promoted to children with commercial "hooks" such as the mascot cartoons.109111 The re-negotiated North American Free Trade Agreement, signed in November 2018 by Canada, Mexico and the US, but not yet ratified, 112 contains provisions that could be used for preliminary (or at least delays and delays). weaken) national and sub-national measures that will follow the Chile model for front-of-pack labeling within Canada, Mexico and the US.
Except dr. Pepper Snapple, all current brands of children's beverage brands who have studied here, have pledged to take part in industry led by voluntary agreements to restrict the selective marketing of unhealthy beverages for children under the age of 12. Industry argues that some marketing strategies developed by the tobacco company – including brand-name toys, licensing of toy brands and cartoons – are not really targeted at children and are therefore excluded from the agreement. The evidence presented here shows that these marketing techniques, which still prevail, have been specifically designed to attract children by blurring entertainment content in a way that is now contrary to industry-led agreements. It is therefore unlikely that voluntary industry codes will provide an adequate solution to the problem and we need government-enforced regulations.
Tobacco companies have acquired brands of soft drinks for diversification
Industrial documents show that marketing strategies aimed at children have developed brands
Colors, flavors and packaging, and cartoon characters suitable for children were used to promote the products
Although brands have been sold to food companies, marketing techniques remain in force despite voluntary agreements not to promote unhealthy products to children.
Thanks to Claire Brindis, Cristina Kearns, Eric Crosbi and Mark Pertschuk for advice, Steven Dominguez for helping with editing copies and editors and reviewers BMJ for useful suggestions.
Contributors and Resources: All authors contributed to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. KHN and LS have developed a manuscript, and all authors have contributed to the review of important intellectual content: KHN is the guarantor.
Competitive Interests: We have read and understood BMJ's policy of declaring interests and declare that the work was supported by the Laura Foundation and the John Arnold Foundation, the CrossFit Foundation, and the US National Cancer Institute (CA 087472). Funding bodies have no role in designing, implementing, collecting, managing, analyzing and interpreting data or in preparing, reviewing or approving a manuscript.
Provenance and peer review: not specified; externally reviewed.