Pavlopoulos: Opportunities and Challenges from the "Fourth Industrial Revolution" for Greece POLITICS



Priorities and Challenges for Greece, "The Fourth Industrial Revolution," was Prokopis Pavlopoulos in his speech at the Forum of the International Conference on "Progressive Policies for a Fair Digital Transition".

Key points of the President's speech are as follows:

I. The Fourth Industrial Revolution, which is based mainly on the rapid growth of information sciences and especially on artificial intelligence, has put us in front of the "big" dilemma: how we should face technology and its successes. I mean, in particular, the dichotomy of "technology" and "technology" and finally the confrontation between the "supporters" of these two "camps". Confrontation, which, as often happens in the public debate, does not take place without a thorough and thorough knowledge of the whole issue, and thus leads to the narrative of extreme opinions, that is to say, some "manicure" approach to this issue.

II. Your first and very important contribution to informing the scientific community – and not just that, of course – our country is therefore a clear explanation that the technologies expected for the fourth industrial revolution are based on the high achievements of the Spirit.

A. In this way, it will help develop the wealth of ideas that form the scientific background of modern electronic technology – which uses algorithm theory, the development of quantum computing, artificial intelligence, etc., fruitful dialogue. A dialogue that will move far beyond the stereotypes advocated by conservative "technophobes" on the one hand, as well as ruthless supporters of many years ago, the future Alvin Toffler, with his book "The Third Wave" On the other hand.

B. Because, in fact, he is not widely and sufficiently informed about how intelligent and innovative ideas are behind the critical technological advances in the information sciences, what high inspiration to the human mind. It should not be forgotten that there is an obvious "spirituality" behind the "seeming" cold electronic technology. Here are two examples that support this statement:

1. First, although I am not an expert in these sciences, let me point out that I was amazed at studying John McCormick's book "The Nine Algorithms That Changed the World." In which, among other things, there are presented "fine" ideas that led to the intellectual concept of an innovative algorithm that Google used to evaluate its results. This algorithm is called "PageRank" and was first introduced to Larry Page and Sergey Brin at a scientific conference in 1998 through his work titled "Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertext Search Engine" (ie, Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertext Search Engine). So, through the search engine indexing algorithm, Google's shocking performance was based. Achievement that greatly facilitated various aspects of our everyday life and consists of "how to find fleas in the largest barn in the world," according to the eloquent subtitle of the second chapter of the book.

2. Secondly, research on the development of quantum computers – even in childhood – repeats, as some experts believe, the question of fundamentals of quantum mechanics (eg the so-called quantum measurement problem) and can lead to new approaches through the development of this technology. For example, this is, among other things, criticized by Scott Aaronson, professor of computer science at Texas University in Austin, in his book on the Possibilities and Restrictions of Quantum Computers, and which has the distinctive title "Quantum Computing by Democritus" (ie in somewhat free translation, Quantum computation from the time Demokritos "). In this context, we see that technology is not only a basic application of scientific research, but sometimes it creates conditions and provides "tools" for opening new paths, new methods of solving problems that relate to basic research itself. And that should not be forgotten. This exciting "recycling" also revitalizes philosophical considerations on fundamental issues – such as causality, locality, time, and space – that make sense, positive science.

III Based on the above-mentioned ideas on the "spirituality" of modern electronic technologies, I would like to mention above all the characteristics of the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution and the economic and social consequences that are expected. The second and most important contribution of the work of this conference to the relevant public debate will highlight the great opportunities that the Fourth Industrial Revolution can bring to the economic development of our country – even beyond it – to highlight the extremely adverse consequences it may have on the labor market, the distribution of wealth and consequently the structure of its social structure. To this end, I propose the following considerations:

A. The most comprehensive, at least my own knowledge, the presentation of the already existing and expected successes of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, as well as the negative impacts to be addressed in time, were reported by Professors and staff at the MIT Center for Digital Business, Eric Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee in his book " Second Machine Age ", a title that was introduced in the Greek edition as" The Wonderful Age of New Technology ". Their study, which resulted from extensive discussions with scientists, technologists and entrepreneurs, has led to unforgettable results, of which I have shown the following:

B. "The Second Era of Machines," which these two writers face to the "first machine age," an industrial revolution of the 18th century that includes, according to the terminology of other scholars, the current congress, the so-called first three industrial revolutions, "three basic characteristics: , digital and combination ". Specifically:
1. Exponential progress is indicative of a tremendous improvement in engine computational power, as Moore's law seems to have confirmed, which in general implies a doubling of roughly over 18 months.
2. There is a gradual digitization of the largest number of available data, which leads to a reduction in their costs.
3. Finally, the ever-growing and qualitatively improved combination of technological innovations (for example, in the field of daily banking, we see the effects of an expanding implementation of the growing connection of digital machines, so-called "Machine") is evident.
C. However, as the writers of the book, "A Good Thing of New Technology", despite the significant advances in artificial intelligence over the last decade, researchers working in the field still "deny" the "Moravec paradox" (Hans Moravec, a pioneer in the field of robotics and professor at Carnegie Mellon University), formulated in the 1980s. According to this paradox: "It is relatively easy for computers to develop satisfactorily in intelligence tests or chess games, but it is difficult or impossible for them to acquire one-year skills in sensory and motor skills."

IV. It is worth stressing, with the proper emphasis that the technical and scientific development that began in the fourth industrial revolution directly affects the socio-economic development in most countries, especially those that are most technologically and economically developed but not just to them.

A. The leaps and bounds of their information sciences and technological applications will cause the disappearance of certain professions, will cause structural unemployment or otherwise "technological unemployment" as John Maenard Kings called it. In addition, it appears that the application of new technologies sometimes leads to the unsafe opening of income gaps, for example, given that the average household income in the US has been steadily decreasing since 1999 despite GDP growth. Against this backdrop, the book "21 Lessons for the 21st Century" has appeared, Yuval Noah Harari, who states that in modern liberal democracy – once in the form of a representative democracy – what is more compatible with the nature of the human system of government, the great danger is not literally the exploitation of man , but its marginalization. In which it is rebutted by the unpredictable technological development of the forced exit from the "labor market" and consequently the areas of personal creation that hinder its value and the free development of its personality.

B. Special attention is therefore needed to anticipate similar situations in our country and more generally in Europe by suggesting appropriate policies to ensure a balanced digital integration of our society and our economy at its time, the Fourth Industrial Revolution. What policies will be appropriate in the future in the field of employment, in which culture will we rely on the success of future generations of new tasks, and what form of redistributive justice can be the great success of our European legal and political culture within the policies of the welfare state of justice, are critical and irrelevant questions? which we have to seriously think, use the technocratic knowledge together with the attentive Olic designing a future that does not last long.

C. Really allow me, for the most part – and despite the fear of being tired – to repeat that we must protect the social state of justice, especially in Europe, as well as the economic and technological developments that may arise to make it more difficult to continue operating. Nazi and fascist forms that are evolving in today's Europe will teach us that we must always be on alert. The causes of these remnants must be removed and reminiscent of the nightmares of the Second World War. We must defend social justice and solidarity. Why, by protecting social justice and solidarity, the causes that break the social fabric and lead to the suffering of the people will be removed and eliminated.
Summary: Finally, in cooperation with our partners in the large family of states that make up the European Union, I think we can use technology from the Fourth Industrial Revolution to develop policies that will extend both freedom and individual initiative, while on the other hand they will more safely protect social justice and solidarity on our continent. We owe it to the generations of the Greeks and the other Europeans who come to us.


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