Electricity Information – why should the batteries not be fully charged and emptied? / Article / LSM.LV



The world is trying to improve the battery's ability to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a scientist in Latvia, is also concerned. In LTV, Cognitive Impulse, says that battery life should not be fully charged and fully discharged.

How was the victory of civilization for electricity?

  • 6th century BC in ancient Greece. Jhok discovered static electricity by wiping a piece of amber on the wool.
  • In 1771, Italian physician Luigi Galvani noted that the pole was immersed in the foot when it spun over it.
  • In 1800, the Italian physicist Alesandro Volta founded the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, André Marie Amper understood how the current magnetic field is affected.
  • In 1831 Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundations for an electric motor.
  • In 1879, the first inventor Thomas Edison patented the first light bulb.

It is said that at the time when Faraday manifested a breakthrough in his country's prime minister, the politician asked whether he had any use. Faradey decided at that time – I do not know, but I'm convinced that it will be possible to collect taxes.

Meanwhile, in another science, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla went differently – he had the idea of ​​making electricity free for everyone. The basic idea of ​​Tesla's reel is that an object in the city center generates electricity, but incandescent bulbs or other non-electrical electrical devices get the energy they need. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So the idea of ​​Tesla's reel at least now looks like a costly and ineffective way to deliver electricity to consumers. Who knows, perhaps the idea of ​​the availability of electricity as a wireless Internet is not the right time.

Much better with James Maxwell, who makes his thoughts work. His idea of ​​how the mobile magnet creates electricity has brought a significant breakthrough in the development of civilization. Magnet moves electrons like water. By the way, the same electricity is often used for comparison, and where there is water, there is also current or current and all the related units of measurement.

Basic principles of electrical physics

So what is the flow of electricity? These are electrons – small particles in small atoms. Some basic principles of physics have to be taken into account to understand why electrons form electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons as balls they have, although they are very insignificant but attractive forces, but unlike others they have a very strong rejection power. Since atoms without electrons also have other particles – protons, they interact with each other. Usually, how much in the atom does not have a proton, so much electron, and we do not feel any special electrical discharges. At a time when, for example, one surface is working another, we get the electrons from one surface to the next, and then the number of particles is changed, they begin to attract particles of other objects. And all this can be measured as electricity.

Electrical charging can be transmitted from one surface to another. For example, it happens every time the hair emanates, synthetic clothes, even if they pull their feet to the ground and touch metal objects.

The electromagnetic field, on the other hand, determines whether the electrons will move as a bridgehead and will form a DC stream, or they will fly down 50 times per second and generate alternating current.

Explore energy storage

All types of power generation currently available, apart from solar power, generate alternating current. It is possible, however, to accumulate only direct current. Unidirectional current is a form in which energy is also stored in batteries, and battery types are as different as tasks: to operate the device, to accumulate the generated energy.

How and how long batteries can accumulate energy is directly dependent on the chemical elements in them. The battery charger on the other hand affects the behavior of these elements. "As we accumulate energy, some ions move from one side to another, and electricity does not flow in. When charging the battery, the ions are aligned to the other side and they are waiting, we connect the external load and the stream starts to flow in the opposite direction and the ions move backwards. That's why they are second to balance, "explains Kristaps Vitols, a researcher at the Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering at Riga Technical University (RTU).

When the batteries become empty or do not do their job, they do not perform the required reactions again, so the particles do not stay in the right places. "It's not okay for the battery to blow out all the way, because the ions have gone to the other side, they sit down and the longer they are, the more they like to stay, then the batteries start to accumulate, it can not accumulate and can not work for so long , "says Vitol.

This means that the battery should not be fully charged and completely discharged. "In one case, the ions remain on one side and the other on the other.

Both these extreme points degrade the battery, "explains the researcher.

Not so long ago it was believed that the batteries should not be partially recharged because they remembered their state of mind and did not even try to be full. It turns out that it is neither a myth nor a truth, because it is everything from which the batteries are made. "Built-in devices such as lithium-ion batteries do not have any memory effect." There were nickel-cadmium batteries in the past that were remembered – if they were half-charged, only half worked, "says Vitol.

To further improve the energy storage capacity of batteries, the world does not make millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists who are looking for the best battery solution and looking after them as well as a living organism. "There is no electronics, just chemistry and science of materials, together to make the batteries last longer, better and cheaper." When they are to be transplanted, the cells must be combined with systems to care for the wellbeing of each cell, "the researcher explains.

Battery richness depends on temperature, but the electrons that accumulate must be able to move.


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