Malaria, a disease without eradication



Anopheles female mosquitoes with a single bite are able to carry a parasite that causes malaria or malaria. The Komar does not know boundaries or boundaries. Their women are looking for blood to feed their offspring and go from body to body and carry the disease in a very difficult cycle to exclude them. But it is not impossible

In Panama, malaria is a herbal disease and the highest number of cases is reported in indigenous people.

Parasites who carry malaria are five species according to the Panameric Health Organization (PAHO), but two of the most dangerous are Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum that can aggravate the patient's health and cause his death

Epidemiological records from the Department of Health (Minsa) show that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are circulating in the country, and that compared with those in October, the number of people presenting the disease increased by 48 in the same month. In 2017 it was 531, while this number increased to 579 this year.

This latest report also suggests that the increase in the number of people with malaria is expected as Plasmodium vivax occurred in the Tuira communities in the Darien province of Guna Yala (La Miel, Puerto Obaldia and Playón Chico) and Ngäbe Bugle and Colón.

Call

In the face of this situation, Minsa and the Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies (IECGES) signed a PEMO Health Strategy Plan in 2020 as part of the PEEM, in which the necessary measures are being taken to bring about the abolition of indigenous cases in the country.

Measures to be taken include active case study, integral approach, community orientation, and in-home spraying.

In fact, epidemiology data show that 549 autochthonous cases and 30 imported cases of malaria were reported until last October. And during the year 2017 there were 599 autochthonous cases and 31 cases imported, representing a total of 630 people who presented this disease.

In this sense, the Mins epidemiology department said that the illnesses persist in the original areas because they were unable to eliminate malaria.

The key problem they have encountered is also the linguistic difference between the indigenous population population and the health officials who come into these areas with preventive and control programs.

Epidemiology officials said that during the workshops, subjects showed gaps in diagnosis, treatment, research, and response, and therefore these aspects relied on PEEM.

Deputy Health Minister Eric Ulloa explained that as a country we will not proceed, not just against the mosquito, the vector; but in active search for cases where we need to work with the community, promoters, associations to actively seek out cases and treat them quickly to reduce transmission.

He added that there are some obstacles such as dispersal of endemic sites, endemic areas located at international borders, socio-cultural characteristics of indigenous peoples, among others.

Proposals and studies

Meanwhile, scientist Icges Nicanor Obaldi III recommended a multisectoral approach that would include MINSA, the Department of Housing, the Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, among others to address endemic outbreak efforts (improving housing systems and drainage, fumigation and removal of mosquito breeding sites).

He argued that they are doing a study that they are hoping to be part of the base to design a system of molecular epidemiological surveillance of imported or flourishing parasites in Panama and Mesoamerica. [desde la península de Yucatán en México, Centroamérica y Panamá],

The researcher stated that the aim of this proposal is to identify genetic diversity and population structure to understand the epidemiology or dynamics of the disease as well as the biology of its transmission which are key elements in implementing a successful program of elimination,

De Obaldi III confirmed that preliminary research results called Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Human Malaria Parasites in Panama during the period 2007-2012, the Plasmodium vivax parasite in Panama was in the "clone" phase (highly related genetically or cross-linked), suggesting low diversity and consequently low portability. These results are evidence of progress towards elimination.


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