It is really important to recognize this disorder in a timely manner.
What exactly is dyslexia?
It is a developmental disorder that is one of the specific learning disabilities, more specifically reading. The child has a problem to learn to read despite acceptable intellectual abilities, to understand the read text and to correctly reproduce it in a written form.
The most common cause is genetic predisposition (up to 40% of dyslexic parents also have dyslexics), to a lesser extent exogenous factors (brain damage in the prenatal, perinatal or postnatal period before, during and after birth).
It is important to know that children with dyslexia are neither stupid nor lazy. The main area of the problem is the way the brain works. People with dyslexia use reading different parts of the brain like those who do not suffer from it. For this reason, literacy is a big problem.
Children learn to read in a way that they learn how to combine the sound of the letter / word with its written form. And in this connection, dyslexics have a big problem. Reading does not become an automatic activity because children with dyslexia have the problem of decoding words and letters, assigning them to their sound form, and then using this ability to read the word perfectly.
Although the diagnosis of this disorder is complex and requires a comprehensive examination by a psychologist, a parent may even suspect the disease if he knows his child carefully and looks at it.
If your child has this type of problem, be sure to look for a pedagogical-psychological counseling center:
- One of the first warning signals is the slowing of speech development. It may seem that the child knows little or little about his or her age.
- It has the problem of linking phonemes and graphs – combining the visual form of the letter with its wording. You are not sure which letter of the alphabet is making the sound (imagine that you see the letter B. Now read it aloud, Dyslektik has just this big problem).
- He reads on a much lower academic level as he says.
- When read aloud, it often skips short words.
- It often happens to confuse letters in words or similar sounds.
- It is a problem to assign a visual object to a word (it will bring a knife instead of a fork).
- He has a problem with using words that sound the same but have different meanings.
- It is difficult for him to find out if two words rhyme.
- She has difficulty learning new words, getting to know the colors.
- He has difficulty learning rhykes that have a rhythm.
- He reads slowly, he does not like to read aloud, has difficulty understanding reading text due to problems with decoding letters and words.
- It has difficulty reproducing the read text. Though if a fairy tale is read, it may not be a problem to summarize the story.
- He may have difficulty using the appropriate word. For a long time, he searches for the expression he wants to use, and often happens to use the wrong term, similar to the correct one.
- Writing text is capable of making mistakes in the same word.
- It has the problem of seeing (sometimes even hearing) differences and similarities in words and letters.
- It has distorted perceptions of the differences of the details of the letters, their positions – for example, inverted shapes (b, d).
- Often skips or adds letters in words.
- He has difficulty in understanding jokes and statements that are symbolic.
- It is not capable of distinguishing pits, soft / hard syllables (di – dy) or short or long tones.
- It is a problem to determine the correct order of the words in the word, the words in the sentence.
- He has the problem of keeping words in short-term memory (if you ask him to bring a book, paper and pencils, he will bring one, never everything).
- It can knit right / left.
- He or she may have trouble getting in between peers – heavier "reads" social situations or body language.
- It makes it difficult to find out what word we will leave if we remove the initial letter (if you say the word "train" and ask what word we get if we delete the letter v).
- He has difficulty learning a foreign language.
Motivation and support are important
The child will struggle with dyslexia throughout his life. Therefore, it is very important that the awareness of his or her difficulties is not a source of stress. The parent should motivate the child and encourage him / her to stop trying and not give up despite the initial failure.
The following activities the parent can practice with him every day can help him:
- The child learns best through the game. If you go to the store, try to play with it: How many food you find, which begins similar to its name (if it's called Peťko, you can find parsley, pepper, oranges …)
- Cut out the hard paper letters, paint them and try to create the words associated with their pronunciation.
- Get the word with your child as often as possible. Ask what the word gets if the word cat takes me what word she will get if she adds sat. (Words may be fanciful, it does not have to make sense, it is essential to learn to perceive the sounds of the letters).
Finally, the child will swiftly fight with this disorder and will make rapid progress unless stressed, but will feel your patience and support.