NASA selects an old crater lake as the landing site for the future Mars Rover

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One of the most important benefits of working on Mars in fact does not really help curiosity. After years of exploring the Red Planet using probes such as Curiosity, Spirit, and Opportunity, we have gathered a lot of information about how the water once flowed through Mars. Features that once looked like they could be made with liquid water were confirmed to have been created. And that means it's easier to pick potential landing targets for future missions in a way that maximizes the chance of finding what we are looking for when it lands.

The newest destination? The Lake Crater, the ancient lake on Mars, thought it had spent a lot of time filled with liquid. The lake has created a short list of NASAs along with alternative sites such as Columbia Hills (home to the ancient hot spring that found the Spirit) and Northeast Syrtis, a mesas group that could once have groundwater supplies. The Lake Crater was probably chosen for a clear sign that it was once a place of a long-submerged area and a type of rock at this site. Here is a description of NASA's own space:

The lake is the Noachov crater basin on the western edge of the Isidis basin. It is characterized by the late Noachian / Early Hesperian fluvial / delta settling sediments into the surrounding-neutral / low salinity (ie, the Habitat) of the Paleolithic. In the orbit the western and northern delta were observed. The western delta dominates Mg-carbonates and associated olives, but is less well preserved than the western delta. Olivine and Mg-carbonates also dominate the filling tank, although it is not clear whether this represents primary detrimental deposition, processing of pre-laustustrine sediments, or the presence of a Mg-carbonate / olivin regional unit observed in the Nili Fossae (also of unknown origin). The volcanic unit (~ 3.5Ga) overlaps most of the tank, splits the eroded deltares, and surrounds the deltaic remnants that have been separated from the main delta bodies by elation deflection at a certain point in front of vulcanism.

Translation: There is clear and good evidence that this area has been underwater for a long time – long enough to create a delta, which happened on Mars as well as on Earth. "Tray" means sediment layers that have been deposited in the crater after years of flowing water. An analysis that the material could tell us more about whether Mars had ever lived. Some of these fillings are buried in remains of volcanic eruptions dated 3.5 years ago. The Noach period on Mars dates back to 4.1-3.7 years, followed by the Hesperian period. Noachian is considered a timeframe in which Mars would retain the liquid on its surface, the Hesperian period was a transitional period during which the planet changed from a warmer, damp environment to the cold, dusty environment we now know. During Hesperian, volcanism became the main geological process on Mars, rather than major impact events. Noachian on Mars roughly corresponds to Hadean and the early Archaeons on Earth.

One area of ​​the proposed landing site inside the Crater Lake. Picture of NASA / JPL / University of Arizona

There are many reasons why scientists are to be curious about Mars in the Noach period. Noach's craters are much more eroded than their Hesperian counterparts, despite the fact that the period of the Noach and Hesperian periods are relatively tight together in time. This suggests that liquid water was much more freely available in Noachián, partly due to the high frequency of crash events. During Noachian, a 100-km impact impactor would hit Mars on average for every million years. To be in perspective, the Crater Chicxulub thought he destroyed the dinosaurs, was caused by an asteroid with a diameter of 10-15 km.

After the Nuremberg period, the amount of water-related weather effects visible on Mars is falling sharply today, though it does not deteriorate. The rate of erosion in the Noachian period to be noted was still much lower than the erosion rate of the country, estimated for the same period or today. According to Michael H. Carr and James W. Head III in his 2010 article "Geological History of Mars", erosion rates during this period were almost two orders lower than comparable current rates of erosion in the United States. Mars, even in his most natural and alive, was not as energetic as Earth.

According to the Washington Post, NASA has chosen Lake Crater because of the variety of terrain types it offers. First, clay is considered important for the development of life on Earth, and Lake Crater has smectite clay types. Secondly, the presence of the delta means that life could either live in sediment-rich soil, or it could flow from the watercourses of any water system that fed the crater. Thirdly, volcanic debris in the same location gives us more insight into the geological evolution of Mars in later periods as it passes into the sleepless rocks that we now know.

Starting and landing will not be easy. NASA has far the best experience with any international space agency in terms of reaching the planet, but statistically only about 40 percent of Mars missions have successfully completed. In this case, Mars 2020's goal is to drill and cache for him samples that can be retrieved later, and the spacecraft returns samples to Earth for detailed analysis in the early 1930s. Mission Mars 2020 is due to begin on July 17, 2020, with the expected landing in February 2021.

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